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I believe in Christianity as I believe that the sun has risen: not only because I see it, but because by it I see everything else.
- C. S. Lewis

Many have said the same of science. The difference being that strict science, defined as the collection and interpretation of empirical data, is not a self-sufficient source of light. That is to say, it depends for its validity (both in fact and in the scientist’s own mind) upon a priori assumptions about the universe (e.g., the uniformity of natural phenomena under identical conditions).

The fact that much of the modern scientist’s rational suppositions have been protected from the ordinary scrutiny of logic by being lumped under the category of “science”–which is properly reserved for the empirical–is a testament to the arrogance particular to the age. The victory has been won by force of will, not by force of reason.

And when modern people realize this, they will discover not only that science (or natural philosophy, as it used to be called) is not an independent enterprise, but that it sheds light on far less than had been supposed. Then we will find that opinions by scientists about matters of metaphysics and ethics are of no more weight than anyone else’s, as everyone’s opinion is seen in light of its own merits and not in the authority of the speaker when the speaker is shown not to be speaking in his field of expertise.

When science submits to the philosophical scrutiny to which everything else must be submitted, then we will find not only that one cannot “see everything else by it,” but that many of its present assumptions about the world are spoken without authority and are plainly false.